Neuroscience

Neuroscience

Understanding Brains in the Second Machine Age

Neuroscience in it’s many forms is playing a central role in the second machine age, especially as it relates to the development of artificial intelligence. There is an interesting dance between the fields of artificial intelligence and human neuroscience where each is informing the other. This department tracks the dance.

Johns Hopkins Scientists Chart How Brain Signals Connect to Neurons

Scientists at Johns Hopkins have used supercomputers to create an atomic scale map that tracks how the signaling chemical glutamate binds to a neuron in the brain. The findings, say the scientists, shed light on the dynamic physics of the chemical’s pathway, as well as the speed of nerve cell communications.

Action games expand the brain’s cognitive abilities

The human brain is malleable – it learns and adapts. Numerous research studies have focused on the impact of action video games on the brain by measuring cognitive abilities, such as perception, attention and reaction time. An international team of psychologists, led by the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, has assembled data from the last fifteen years to quantify how action video games impact cognition. The research has resulted in two meta-analyses, published in the journal Psychological Bulletin, which reveal a significant improvement in the cognitive abilities of gamers.

Reading a neural network’s mind

Technique illuminates the inner workings of artificial-intelligence systems that process language. Neural networks, which learn to perform computational tasks by analyzing huge sets of training data, have been responsible for the most impressive recent advances in artificial intelligence, including speech-recognition and automatic-translation systems.

Noninvasive Brain Imaging Shows Readiness of Trainees To Perform Operations

Study led by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute faculty and graduate student shows that surgeons who trained on simulator had higher level of cortical activation and faster times for cutting tasks. While simulation platforms have been used to train surgeons before they enter an actual operating room (OR), few studies have evaluated how well trainees transfer those skills from the simulator to the OR.

Multiplayer video games: Researchers discover link between skill and intelligence

Researchers at the University of York have discovered a link between young people’s ability to perform well at two popular video games and high levels of intelligence. Studies carried out at the Digital Creativity Labs (DC Labs) at York found that some action strategy video games can act like IQ tests. The researchers’ findings are published today in the journal PLOS ONE.

Advanced artificial limbs mapped in the brain

EPFL scientists from the Center for Neuroprosthetics have used functional MRI to show how the brain re-maps motor and sensory pathways following targeted motor and sensory reinnervation (TMSR), a neuroprosthetic approach where residual limb nerves are rerouted towards intact muscles and skin regions to control a robotic limb.

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